Friday, 13 May 2011

Using a PAC file to set proxy settings

There are many ways to configure proxy settings, via a GPO, via a build, or an application.

Proxy settings can cause issues for mobile users if they use their device away from the corporate LAN as the proxy server will not be reachable, this will render the internet browser unusable (unless of course Direct Access has been implemented)

There are many solutions to this problem, some common ones are:
1. Teach users to enable and disable proxy settings, This is not the most elegant solution, is likely to cause a fair amount of support calls, and also means proxy settings cannot be enforced.

2. Run a 3rd party app that users can click on and select proxy on or proxy off. Im not a fan of these types of applications that sit there and use up resources for no real reason.

3. Run a login script that sets the proxy setting if you are connected to the corporate LAN, and doesn’t if you are not. This is a long winded way of doing it, and is not 100% effective.

In my opinion, the most effective and efficient way of configuring proxy settings is to use a proxy auto config file (PAC)
A PAC file contains a JavaScript function "FindProxyForURL(url, host)". This function returns a string with one or more access method specifications. These specifications cause the user agent to use a particular proxy server or to connect directly

.
You configure your browser (works in all popular browsers) to use a script to configure proxy settings, this setting remains in place permantly. If the PAC file is placed on a web server accessible only within the corporate LAN, if the user is away from the LAN, the config file is not found, so therefore a proxy is not used.


When the user is within the LAN, the file is found, and proxy settings configured.
Some say that a login script can achieve this too, however the login script requires you to login to take effect.


Take a scenario where a user is in the office, closes the lid on his or her laptop, gets on the train then opens the lid, and connects via 3G.
If proxy settings were configured with a login script, the office proxy settings would still be present unless the user logged off and on again.
With a PAC method in place, the browser looks for the settings each time a page is requested, therefore it would fail to find the config file and connect directly.

Below is an example PAC file which can be modified to suit your needs. This could be further extended to look at the current IP of the client, and return a different proxy depending on where the client is. Eg if the client is within an IP range which is associated with the Paris office, the Paris proxy would be returned, or if the client is on a New York IP range, the New York proxy would be returned.


function FindProxyForURL(url, host)
 {
        
        // Direct connections to Hosts
         if (isPlainHostName(host) ||
         (host == "127.0.0.1") ||
         (host == "www.a-whole-domain.com") ||
         (shExpMatch(host, "*.a-entire-domain.com")) ||
         (shExpMatch(host, "10.20.30.*"))) {
           return "DIRECT"
         } else {
           return "PROXY proxy-server.domain.com:8080"
         }
 }



Within this file, access to the IP range 10.20.30.0 - 10.20.30.255 would be accessed directly (bypassing the proxy) aswell as the domain www.a-whole-domain.com. anything under the domain a-entire.domain.com would also bypass the proxy. everything else will be directed at the proxy server "proxy-server.domain.com" on port 8080.
Add additional sites to the proxy bypass list by copying an existing line and pasting it below.


Although a WPAD file could also offer similar functionality, in my experience a PAC file is much more flexible and will enable changes to take effect instantly.

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